High Mountain Asia

Diverging Trends in Rain-On-Snow Over High Mountain Asia

Rain-on-snow (ROS) over snow-dominated regions such as High Mountain Asia (HMA) modulates snowmelt and runoff and is key contributor in influencing water availability and hazards (e.g., floods and landslides). We studied the trends in ROS in HMA over …

Distributional Validation of Precipitation Data Products with Spatially Varying Mixture Models

The high mountain regions of Asia contain more glacial ice than anywhere on the planet outside of the polar regions. Because of the large population living in the Indus watershed region who are reliant on melt from these glaciers for fresh water, …

On the Relevance of Aerosols to Snow Cover Variability Over High Mountain Asia

While meteorology and aerosols are identified as key drivers of snow cover (SC) variability in High Mountain Asia, complex non-linear interactions between them are not adequately quantified. Here, we attempt to unravel these interactions through a …

Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Assimilation to Improve Snow Mass Estimation Across Complex Terrain in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan

An ensemble Kalman filter is used to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-2 (AMSR2) observations of passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures (spectral differences, ΔTb) into land surface model estimates of snow mass over …

Quantifying parameter uncertainty in a large-scale glacier evolution model using Bayesian inference: application to High Mountain Asia

The response of glaciers to climate change has major implications for sea-level change and water resources around the globe. Large-scale glacier evolution models are used to project glacier runoff and mass loss, but are constrained by limited …

Changes in Extreme Precipitation and Landslides Over High Mountain Asia

High Mountain Asia is impacted by extreme monsoonal rainfall that triggers landslides in large proportions relative to global distributions, resulting in substantial human impacts and damage to infrastructure each year. Previous landslide research …

A Joint Landsat- and MODIS-Based Reanalysis Approach for Midlatitude Montane Seasonal Snow Characterization

A new snow reanalysis method is presented that is designed to jointly assimilate Landsat- and MODIS-derived (MODSCAG) fractional snow covered area (fSCA) to characterize seasonal snow in remote regions like High Mountain Asia (HMA) where in situ data …

Analyzing Machine Learning Predictions of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Spectral Difference Over Snow-Covered Terrain in High Mountain Asia

“Snow is an important component of the terrestrial freshwater budget in high mountain Asia (HMA) and contributes to the runoff in Himalayan rivers through snowmelt. Despite the importance of snow in HMA, considerable spatiotemporal uncertainty exists …

Assimilation of Satellite-Based Snow Cover and Freeze/Thaw Observations Over High Mountain Asia

Towards qualifying hydrologic changes in the High Mountain Asia (HMA) region, this study explores the use of a hyper-resolution (1 km) land data assimilation (DA) framework developed within the NASA Land Information System using the Noah …

Deriving Bias and Uncertainty in MERRA-2 Snowfall Precipitation Over High Mountain Asia

A Bayesian approach to estimate bias and uncertainty in snowfall precipitation from MERRA-2 and other precipitation products was applied over High Mountain Asia (HMA), using a newly developed snow reanalysis method. Starting from an ‘uninformed’ …